The kidneys are a pair of organs located in the back of the abdomen. They are responsible for filtering waste products and excess fluids from the blood, as well as regulating the balance of electrolytes in the body.
The kidneys filter the blood by removing excess fluids, electrolytes, and waste products, such as urea and creatinine. These waste products are then excreted in the urine, which is collected in the bladder until it is eliminated from the body through the urethra.
The kidneys also help regulate blood pressure by releasing a hormone called renin when blood pressure falls too low. Renin acts on a substance in the blood called angiotensinogen, converting it into angiotensin, which constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
The kidneys also produce hormones that regulate red blood cell production and maintain healthy bones. For example, the hormone erythropoietin stimulates the production of red blood cells, and vitamin D, which is activated in the kidneys, helps the body absorb calcium, which is necessary for strong bones.
Overall, the kidneys play a vital role in maintaining the overall health of the body by removing waste products and excess fluids, regulating blood pressure and electrolyte balance, and producing hormones that help regulate various body functions.