5KW hybrid solar system is very commonly asked solution. it is recommended for a 5 marla house in Pakistan. It can produce Max 20KW (units) per day. It can run
1. 1.5 ton Inverter AC 2. 1.5HP Water Pump 3. Refrigerator 4. 4 Fans 5. 9 Watt x 8 Led Lights
System Components with price:
a. Hybrid Inverter 5.2KW make by Voltronic Power Axpert Series VM II
b. Solar Panel 540 Watt x 10 (Total 5400watt) Tier-1 Brand i.e Jinko, JA, Longi, Astro, Canadain, Trina
c. Tall Tubular Battery 225Ah x 4 (Hyunadi / Phoenix) Korean Brand
d. PV Mounting 2PV / 3PV (14 Gauge Galvanized with nut, bolts, washers and Rawal Bolts)
e. DC Flexible wire (6mm 2 core for solar panals to inverter, 25mm for Batteries to inverter)
f. AC Standard Wire (7/.029, 7.036) for AC input / output connections to Inverter)
g. Protection Box (DC braker for battery/Solar, AC Change-over Breaker for inverter/Grid, overload protector for inverter output safety)
Cost of System Estimated average price as of Feb-2022 is 680,000 PKR with complete installation charges)
if you want to go for a Hybrid on grid system cost will be additional 15,000 PKR +680,000 PKR
Net Metering Charges
Net metering cost about 90,000 PKR including Green Meter, AC disconnect switch, AC/DC earthing, boring, copper conductor, surge arrestor and Surge protection etc.
Backup / Energy Storage. At continues load of 2000W or 2KW battery backup can last up to 3 hours when solar or grid is not available. However in tropical seasons or in winter season when AC is not running backup time can last more then 10 hours
Warranty / After Sales Services
Hybrid inverters comes with standard 12 months warranty, however, some local companies offer 18 months or 24 months warranty. As well as, very few companies offer up to 5 year warranty.
Solar Panel Warranty
Solar panel standard warranty 10 to 12 years replacement or workmanship
I have been using Jazz network for the last 15 years. I have tried many Postpaid and prepaid packages daily, weekly and monthly basis. As of Today, the best available package is “Weekly Super Max” with Validity of 7 Days.
If offers: (Benefits)
6000 On-net Minutes
150 Off-net Minutes
30720 MB (30GB) Internet – Usable 24 hours – No Time slot limited applied.
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So, it gives you freedom and the best value for your money.
The price is of Package is PKR 400 (including Tax).
Dial Code *506# to activate the package.
activate it using Jazz mobile app.
A screenshot of this package is attached for ease to understand and find it in Jazz World’s Mobile App.
Be careful, once package is expired. 2.25/MB will be charge as per data usage. It can drain all of your balance.
To avoid it activate Balance saver package which is free of charge. once subscribed it will remain valid till 31 December 2037.
To activate Jazz balance saver service dial *275# from your mobile device keypad. if you want to unsubscribe from this service dial *275*4# and service will be unsubscribed.
Affiliate marketing is a way for a company to sell its products by signing up individuals or companies (“affiliates”) who market the company’s products for a commission. Affiliates use their own marketing tactics to promote the company’s products and earn a piece of the profit from each sale they make.
For example, an affiliate might create a website or social media account where they review and promote the products of a particular company. If a visitor to the affiliate’s site clicks on a link to the company’s product and makes a purchase, the affiliate will earn a commission from the sale.
Affiliate marketing can be a profitable venture for both the company and the affiliate, as long as the affiliate is able to effectively promote the company’s products and generate sales.
An on-grid solar inverter, also known as a grid-tied inverter, converts the direct current (DC) electricity produced by the solar panels on your roof into alternating current (AC) electricity, which is the type of electricity that is used in your home and can be fed back into the grid.
The on-grid solar inverter is connected to the solar panels and to your home’s electrical panel. When the solar panels produce excess electricity, the inverter sends it to the grid. This excess electricity can be used by other homes and businesses in your area. In return, you may receive credits on your utility bill.
On-grid solar inverters typically have a control panel that allows you to monitor the performance of your solar panels and your system’s output. They also have safety features that allow them to automatically shut off in the event of a power outage or other electrical issue.
Overall, the on-grid solar inverter plays a critical role in a home solar panel system by allowing you to generate clean, renewable electricity and potentially save money on your energy bills.
It is difficult to predict exactly how much solar energy will be used in 2050, as it will depend on a variety of factors such as technological advancements, government policies, and economic conditions. However, it is likely that solar energy will play a significant role in the global energy mix in the coming decades, as it is a clean and renewable source of electricity.
There are many efforts underway to increase the use of solar energy, including the development of more efficient solar panels, the expansion of solar power plants, and the adoption of solar energy by individuals and businesses. In addition, the cost of solar energy has been steadily decreasing over the years, making it more accessible and financially viable for a wider range of users.
Overall, it is expected that solar energy will continue to grow in popularity and importance in the coming years, and it could potentially play a major role in helping to mitigate the effects of climate change.
The human eye is an organ that allows us to see. It does this by detecting light and converting it into electrical signals, which are then sent to the brain. The eye is made up of several parts, including the cornea, the iris, the pupil, the lens, the retina, and the optic nerve.
The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It helps to focus light as it enters the eye. The iris is the colored part of the eye that surrounds the pupil. The pupil is the black circle in the center of the iris, and it adjusts in size to control the amount of light that enters the eye.
The lens is a clear, flexible structure that sits behind the pupil. It helps to focus light onto the retina, which is a thin layer of light-sensitive cells at the back of the eye. The retina converts the light that it receives into electrical signals and sends them to the brain through the optic nerve.
The brain then processes these signals and interprets them as images. This process occurs almost instantly, allowing us to see the world around us in real-time
A dry cell is a type of battery that is commonly used in household devices such as flashlights, radios, and portable electronic devices. It is called a dry cell because it does not contain a liquid electrolyte, which makes it suitable for use in portable devices that may be tilted or turned upside down. The main advantage of a dry cell is that it can be used in any position, as the lack of a liquid electrolyte means that it will not leak.
A lithium battery, on the other hand, is a type of rechargeable battery that uses lithium ions as the main charge carrier. Lithium batteries are known for their high energy density, which means that they can store a large amount of energy in a small package. They are commonly used in portable electronic devices such as laptops and smartphones, as well as in electric vehicles and other high-energy applications.
In general, lithium batteries are more expensive than dry cells and may not be as widely available. However, they offer a number of advantages over dry cells, including a longer shelf life, a higher energy density, and the ability to be recharged.
Perovskite solar cells are a type of photovoltaic cell that use a perovskite-structured material as the active layer for converting sunlight into electricity. They have attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to their high efficiency and low cost. Perovskite solar cells have achieved record-high efficiencies of over 25% in laboratory settings, and they have the potential to be even more efficient in the future. They are also relatively easy and inexpensive to manufacture, making them a promising candidate for large-scale deployment in the solar energy industry.
A sodium battery is a type of electrochemical cell that uses sodium ions as the charge-carrying species. Sodium batteries are similar to lithium-ion batteries in that they both use ionic movement to store and release energy, but they differ in the materials that they use. Sodium is an abundant and inexpensive element, making sodium batteries a potentially attractive alternative to lithium-ion batteries for certain applications. However, sodium batteries also have some drawbacks compared to lithium-ion batteries, such as lower energy density and shorter lifetimes.
Lithium-ion batteries have several benefits compared to other types of batteries:
High energy density: Lithium-ion batteries have a high energy density, meaning they can store a lot of energy in a small amount of space. This makes them ideal for use in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles.
Lightweight: Lithium-ion batteries are lighter in weight compared to other types of batteries, making them easy to carry around and ideal for use in portable devices and vehicles.
Long lifespan: Lithium-ion batteries have a longer lifespan compared to other types of batteries, and can last for several years before needing to be replaced.
Low self-discharge: Lithium-ion batteries have a low self-discharge rate, meaning they lose their charge slowly over time. This makes them ideal for use in devices that are not used frequently.
No memory effect: Lithium-ion batteries do not have a “memory effect,” which means they do not need to be fully discharged before recharging. This makes them easier to use and maintain compared to other types of batteries.
High voltage: Lithium-ion batteries have a high voltage, which means they can produce more power in a shorter amount of time compared to other types of batteries. This makes them ideal for use in high-power applications such as electric vehicles.
The kidneys are a pair of organs located in the back of the abdomen. They are responsible for filtering waste products and excess fluids from the blood, as well as regulating the balance of electrolytes in the body.
The kidneys filter the blood by removing excess fluids, electrolytes, and waste products, such as urea and creatinine. These waste products are then excreted in the urine, which is collected in the bladder until it is eliminated from the body through the urethra.
The kidneys also help regulate blood pressure by releasing a hormone called renin when blood pressure falls too low. Renin acts on a substance in the blood called angiotensinogen, converting it into angiotensin, which constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
The kidneys also produce hormones that regulate red blood cell production and maintain healthy bones. For example, the hormone erythropoietin stimulates the production of red blood cells, and vitamin D, which is activated in the kidneys, helps the body absorb calcium, which is necessary for strong bones.
Overall, the kidneys play a vital role in maintaining the overall health of the body by removing waste products and excess fluids, regulating blood pressure and electrolyte balance, and producing hormones that help regulate various body functions.
It’s difficult to definitively rank the top 10 Hollywood celebrities, as opinions on fame and popularity can vary widely. However, some of the most well-known and successful actors, actresses, and other personalities in the entertainment industry include:
This is just one possible list, and there are many other actors and actresses who are also highly popular and successful in Hollywood.
Moringa is a plant that is native to parts of India and Africa. It is also known as the “miracle tree” because it is highly nutritious and has a wide range of medicinal properties. Moringa leaves, seeds, flowers, and roots are all used in traditional medicine and are believed to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects.
Moringa leaves are a good source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and protein. They are often consumed as a leafy green vegetable or ground into a powder that can be added to food or taken as a supplement. Moringa oil, which is extracted from the seeds of the plant, is also used in cooking and as a natural skin moisturizer.
In addition to its medicinal uses, moringa is also used as a natural water purification agent and as a source of animal feed and biofuel. It is also grown as an ornamental plant due to its attractive, fragrant flowers.
Fox nuts, also known as makhana, are a type of edible seed that is native to India and Nepal. They are often consumed as a snack or used in traditional medicines due to their potential health benefits. Some potential benefits of consuming fox nuts include:
Low in calories: Fox nuts are low in calories and can be a good choice for people trying to lose weight.
High in fiber: Fox nuts are a good source of dietary fiber, which can help improve digestion and prevent constipation.
Rich in antioxidants: Fox nuts contain antioxidants, which may help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.
May improve heart health: Fox nuts are low in cholesterol and fat, and they may help lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart disease.
May have anti-inflammatory effects: Fox nuts have anti-inflammatory properties and may help reduce inflammation in the body.
May boost the immune system: Fox nuts are a good source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C, which may help improve immune function.
It’s important to note that more research is needed to confirm the health benefits of fox nuts and to determine the appropriate dosages and forms of the seeds for different uses.
A hybrid car is a vehicle that uses two or more different sources of power to move. Most hybrid cars use a combination of an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor.
Here’s how a hybrid car works:
The internal combustion engine (ICE) runs on gasoline and is used to power the car at higher speeds or when the electric motor is not sufficient to meet the car’s power needs.
The electric motor is powered by a battery pack and is used to power the car at lower speeds or when the car is stopped. The electric motor can also assist the ICE when the car is accelerating or climbing a hill.
The battery pack is charged by the ICE and through regenerative braking, which captures the energy that is normally lost when the car is braking and converts it into electricity to recharge the battery.
The hybrid car has a control system that determines when to use the ICE, when to use the electric motor, and when to switch between the two. This allows the car to operate as efficiently as possible and to minimize fuel consumption.
Hybrid cars offer several benefits, including improved fuel efficiency, lower emissions, and the ability to run on electricity alone for short distances.
It is difficult to rank solar panels as “tier 1,” as the term “tier 1” does not have a widely accepted definition in the solar industry. Some people use the term to refer to the most efficient or highest-quality solar panels, while others use it to refer to panels that are made by the largest or most well-known manufacturers.
With that said, some of the top-rated solar panel brands and models that are widely regarded as high-quality include:
LG Solar: LG NeON 2, LG NeON R
SunPower: X-Series, E-Series
Canadian Solar: CS6X-P, CS5X-P
Trina Solar: Vertex, Honey
Yingli Solar: PANDA, YL295P-29b
Jinko Solar: Eagle, Swan
Q CELLS: Q.PEAK DUO BLK-G6+
Hanwha Q CELLS: Q.PEAK DUO-G5
Risen Energy: Risen RYM-D Series
LONGi Solar: LR6-60PE-350M, LR6-72PE-350M
It’s important to note that the best solar panel for a particular application will depend on a variety of factors, including the location, budget, and energy needs of the user.
It is not possible to definitively say which cryptocurrency is the best, as the value and usefulness of different cryptocurrencies can vary greatly. Some of the most well-known and widely used cryptocurrencies include:
Bitcoin: Bitcoin is the first and most well-known cryptocurrency, and it is often considered a store of value.
Ethereum: Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts, and it is the second-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization.
Binance Coin: Binance Coin is the official cryptocurrency of the Binance exchange, and it is used to pay for trading fees and other services on the platform.
Dogecoin: Dogecoin was originally created as a joke, but it has gained a large following and has a market capitalization of over $5 billion.
Cardano: Cardano is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts and is focused on scalability and sustainability.
It’s important to note that the value and popularity of cryptocurrencies can change rapidly, and investing in any cryptocurrency carries inherent risks. It is important to do your own research and carefully evaluate the potential risks and rewards before investing in any cryptocurrency.
If you’re interested in installing solar panels on your roof, you’ll want to ensure that the PV system you choose has the highest wattage output possible. The efficiency of your solar panel depends on the surface area of the photovoltaic cells used to generate electricity.
The more cells that are present on the solar panel, the more efficient it will be. In addition, the efficiency of a solar panel is also determined by the materials used to manufacture it. For example, crystalline silicon panels have a slightly higher efficiency rate than monocrystalline or thin-film panels.
The higher the efficiency of the panel, the more electricity it produces, and the more electricity you’ll save on your utility bills. The cost of purchasing and installing solar panels is usually determined by their efficiency rating.
A higher efficiency panel will cost more initially, but it will save you money in the long run because you’ll be able to produce more electricity with a limited amount of space. For example, a standard-size500wattt panel will produce around 4,000 watts of power during its peak performance period, but a high-efficiency750wattt panel will produce approximately 6,000 watts of electrical power during the same period.
So not only will you be able to generate more power with the same amount of space, but you’ll also be able to produce more power with fewer panels since they’re able to absorb more sunlight. Shading and weather conditions can also affect solar panel efficiency. Shading can reduce the overall efficiency of a panel by up to 50% because it prevents the sun from reaching all of the cells on the solar panel.
Overcast weather will also reduce the effectiveness of a panel because it reduces the amount of sunlight it receives. However, neither of these conditions will impact the performance of your solar panels significantly if you only use one panel. You’ll still get plenty of free electricity from the sun even on overcast days, so you won’t need to rely on fossil fuels as much if you do most of your cooking, washing, and other household chores during the day.
Furthermore, almost all solar panels have a lifespan of at least 25 years, which makes them a worthwhile investment over the long term. This is especially true when you consider that the price of solar power has been dropping rapidly in recent years as manufacturers have developed new technologies that make it easier to manufacture and assemble solar panels than ever before.
The cost of residential solar power has fallen by as much as 30% in the past 5 years alone, and some experts predict that solar energy will be cost-competitive with conventional energy sources within the next decade. This won’t just save you money on your utility bills; it will also help reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and help limit our impact on the environment.
On-grid system is consists of two major components solar panel and an on-grid/grid tied inverter.
Solar Panels in Pakistan
in Pakistan almost five tier-1 grade-A solar modules are available i.e Trina, Jinko, JA, Canadian and Longi.
However, some other brands which are not tier-1 but A-grade i.e. CSUN can be used without any doubt.
All these solar panels are offered with 12 years replacement/workmanship warranty and 25/30 years of 80% leaner output warranty.
On-Grid/Grid-Tied inverters in Pakistan
on-grid inverters available brands in Pakistan are (Huawei, Solis, Goodwe, Growatt, Solis, Knox, SMA, SunGrow, Aotai and Sofar) are most popular for commercial and domestic solar system application
PV Mounting System
L2 / L3 / L4 type PV mounting structure made with import G.I Sheet 30 micron galvanized available in 12, 14 and 16 Gauge. The most poplar usage is 14 gauge PV mounting. However, due to rooftop layout and design, limited space availability or due to shading problems customized PV mounting structure is being used. Customized PV mounting structure cost is based on how much material is used as well as quality of PV mounting
Flexible DC Wire – from Solar panel to inverter
The most useable application is 6mm wire but few installers use 4mm dc flexible wire with is not recommended if length is increased between solar panel array and on-grid inverter. up to 17 ampere per array 6mm dc flexible wire is the best choice
Earthing, Surge protection
Earthing is the most imported part also required by NEPRA and AEDB authorities to give approval/License for net metering (Green Meter). The ideal earthing should be up to water level depth. A pure cooper rope wire (without insulation) should be used. Wire thickness can be determined as per solar system size in Kilowatts. However, some installer only use 10 feet long copper rod only.
DC and AC earthing should be separate and minimum 10 feet distance should be maintained between both earth pits.
Earth pits should remain live by keeping it wet and resistance value must not increase >5 Ohms.
A surge arrestor should be installed on rooftop with higher altitude in comparison to PV module height.
Installation Related material (IRM a, b, c)
Installation related material should be A Class quality. Since, customer like to get best available inverter in the market or best solar panel, installation materials such as pipe, duct, cable ties, MC4 connectors, DC fuses, SPD (Surge protection device) should be made by renowned brand.
a. Cable Ties
Cable ties should be made of pure nylon not ordinary plastic material and must be UV resistant. in other case cable ties will not last more than few months and all cable will be observed hanging in the air or lied down on the rooftop surface.
White cable ties are rated for indoor use only. for outdoor use only black nylon UV resistant cable ties are recommended
Duct and pipe should be thick UPVC plastic material. As we assume solar system minimum life as 25 years.
c. MC4 Connectors
MC4 Pairs must be good quality and should not be remain loose while connecting male and female pairs. in other case they can caught fire, heating and energy loss. in some scenario loose connection can cause serious damage to the property.
Installation of Solar panels
Solar panels should be installed in shade free area of rooftop
Solar panel should be fixed properly, each nut, bolt fasted enough using torque wrench
solar panel should be 180 degree facing sought-ward, inclination of solar panel can vary from 5 degree to 40 degree depending on sun horizon as per area/terrain situation.
Installation of on-grid inverter
Mostly on-grid inverter are IP67/IP68 dust and splash resistant but direct UV rays of sun can fade and weaken the outer case of on-grid inverter. inverter must be installed in shady area where is proper air circulation available. If inverter is installed in air tight premises it can effect inverter performance and efficiency.
Online monitoring of solar system
Almost every on-grid inverter manufacture is offer built-in WIFI dongle and monitoring app for cloud based online mentoring . Monitoring is available for Windows OS, Android and Apple IOS all platforms.
Net Metering / Green Meter / Feed Back to Grid License (up to 25KW domestic Solar system)
If you want to replace a Green Meter with conventional meter. It is a lengthy and tiring process. It take about 1.5 to 2.5 months.
as per New NEPRA policy a domestic user can apply for green meter once solar system is already installed.
Required documentation for green meter
Applicant CNIC Copy
Recent paid electricity bill Copy
Inverter Serial No.
Solar Panel Datasheet
Affidavit (Stamp Paper) PKR 50 or PKR 100
System layout diagram
Installer company invoice (company must have AEBD authorization)
important note: customer can install solar system @ 1.5 times factor of sanction load mentioned on his electricity bill. If sanction load is less than required demand, customer can write application to local division to increase it against a very nominal fee. estimated 1000 PKR/KW.
for example: if sanction load is 9KW customer can apply for 13.5KW solar system to feed back to grid.
Civil work is necessary if rooftop is old or there is chance of seepage. concrete based pads should be at the point of anchor bolts on the rooftop. Also on open sided rooftops with no wall and in windy area concrete pad are very necessary.
Solar system Abnormal / Standby / Not Working
Check all three phases are live
Check Natural is not break
Check Solar panel array is connected to inverter
Check Phase sequence is proper (R-S-T) applicable to few inverter brands like infini 10KW design
Check AC Breaker is OK
Check DC Breaker or fuse is OK
Check inverter screen or inverter app if it is showing warning or error code
Contact system installer
Maintenance of solar system
The only major maintenance of solar system is to keep your solar panels clean from dust layer.
Only water is required to wash the solar panel surface at least two time a week if there is not rain.
if solar panels are dusty, up to 30 percent energy production will be reduced.
Always calibrate inverter when new batteries are installed as per provided datasheet from battery manufacturer
Inverter and batteries should be placed where temperature must not exceed than 25°C. UPS location must be airy not suffocated.
Do not deep discharge batteries. Maintain low cut-off 60% DOD (depth of discharge). Let remain 40% energy in battery.
Maintain safe distance at-least 1.5 inch between each two batteries.
If batteries stored are not being used, pass a charging cycle once in a month for Lead-Acid & Sealed Lead Acid MF (Maintenance Free) and Calcium batteries. Once in 6 month for DRY (AGM, GEL, VRLA) batteries, once in a year for Lithium batteries.
If you have lithium battery always use compatible inverters or BMS (battery Management System).
Keep a regular check on batteries if batteries are over-heating or seems swelled check inverter charge /discharge parameter.
Use energy efficient appliances. Use LED bulb instead of conventional lights, use inverter AC or refrigerator available with maximum efficiency in the market. Energy efficient maybe available at bit high but it will use reduce electricity bill.